Given you cannot withdraw from a 401(k) or traditional IRA penalty free before the age of 59.5, it’s prudent to contribute to a Roth IRA with post-tax dollars if your company offers a Roth IRA and if your income is under the limit.
If you are single, you must have a modified adjusted gross income under $139,000 to contribute to a Roth IRA for the 2019 tax year, but contributions are reduced starting at around$122,000. If you are married filing jointly, your MAGI must be less than $206,000, with reductions beginning at $193,000.
A Roth IRA is great for retirement planning if you pay the 24% federal income tax bracket or lower. Once you start paying a 32% federal income tax rate, it gets hard to pay tax up front to contribute to a Roth IRA. Remember, you will likely earn less in retirement than while working.