There’s a good saying in the poker-playing community, “If you don’t know who the sucker is at the table, it’s you.” Given work compensation (cash or stock) is likely the #1 source of wealth for the vast majority of people, I think it’s important we have a thorough discussion on stock options so you don’t get ripped off.
To provide some background as to why I think stock options are mostly for suckers: 1) I am currently the CEO of a privately held online media company who has the ability to grant options. 2) I’m a consultant for a startup where I’ve accepted getting paid in options in lieu of cash for three months worth of work. 3) I’ve been an employee of a couple large financial firms and received stock (not options) as part of bonus compensation from 1999 – today (deferred compensation until 2015 due to severance negotiation). 4) I’ve worked crappy jobs growing up that not only paid me a poor hourly wage of $4 an hour, but also gave me no options or stock.
For those who haven’t been following this site since 2009, my modus operandi is to thoroughly write something against what I plan on doing in order to make sure I’m not missing the obvious. For example, “The Dark Side Of Early Retirement” was written in May, 2010, almost two years before I actually pulled the plug on Corporate America. I still think all the negatives to retiring early in the post are valid. But I’ve learned there are some great positives too about breaking free early.
Working for startups vs. traditional companies will likely make you poorer than richer because most startups fail, and most startups pay you below market rate compensation. Cash is way more valuable to an unprofitable startup than to a company with tremendous cash flow. No cash, and the startup will die due to unmet financial liabilities. Options, on the other hand, aren’t really worth anything until there is some liquidity event.
The CEO could say that each share is worth $100, but nobody really knows. Her job is to sell you the vision with tantalizing options that aren’t currently worth much to get you to work for cheaper. Your job is to make an informed decision on the likelihood of the CEO’s vision turning into reality.
Some startup CEOs make mistakes by not only paying below market compensation, but also hoarding their equity so much that they aren’t able to recruit the right people to help build their company into something extremely valuable. After all, 10% of $1 billion is worth much more than 90% of $0.
Before you accept options as compensation please ask the following simple questions:
* What is the current fully-diluted total shares outstanding?
* What is the exercise price of each option?
* What is my vesting schedule?
* Is there a cliff? If so, what is it?
* Is the company currently raising funds, and at what price?
* Do the venture capitalists have a minimum take if the company is bought?
* Will my unvested options become fully vested if the company is bought out?
The CFO, CEO, or person in charge of granting compensation should be able to answer these questions in a relatively straightforward manner. Getting 100,000 options sounds fantastic, but not so much if the exercise price is at $10 and the company recently raised outside investment at $2 a share. The stock has to go up 500% before you break even! Furthermore, if there are 1 billion shares outstanding, you only have ownership of 0.01% of the company.
Don’t be a sucker by not at least understanding the exercise price, the number of shares outstanding, and your vesting schedule.