Since 2009, both the S&P 500 and the US aggregate bond market have performed well. This article will look at the best asset allocation of stocks and bonds by age in detail. The best asset allocation is subjective in that it depends on your financial goals, risk tolerance, and existing financial health.
I used to work in investment banking in the equities department from 1999 – 2012. Today, I’m an early retiree who is trying to help as many people as possible reach financial freedom sooner, rather than later.
The best asset allocation of stocks and bonds by age depends on your financial goals and risk tolerance.
If you are in your 20s or 30s, your risk tolerance should be pretty high. You have plenty of time to recover from any losses. Further, you likely have more enthusiasm and energy to work.
As you get older, your risk tolerance will naturally fade. For example, as someone with two kids in my mid-40s, I’m just interested in beating inflation by 2X – 3X. Therefore, the best asset allocation of stocks and bonds will tend to become more conservative.
Questions To Ask To Determine The Best Asset Allocation Of Stocks And Bonds
To determine the best asset allocation of stocks and bonds by age, you should ask yourself the following three questions:
1) What do I think comes next for stocks and bonds?
2) Why are both stocks and bonds at near record highs?
3) As I age, what should my asset allocation be to match my risk tolerance?
In this article, I want to not only show you recommendations of different asset allocations. I want to also teach you the why. The more you can understand why these asset allocations makes sense, the more you can invest with confidence.
Don’t blindly do something without understanding the logic, especially when it comes to investing your money.
The Best Asset Allocation Of Stocks And Bonds By Age
Let’s first discuss what’s next for the stock market.
The Future Of Stocks
Nobody knows for sure what’s next. What we do know for the stock market, as represented by the S&P 500 index, is that the long term trend is up and to the right. The stock market has historically returned between 8% – 10% since 1926. Although, there are now forecasts for investment returns to be much lower due to higher valuations.
We also know there are bear cycles to watch out for every 10 years. For example, if you invested all your money at the top of the market in 2000, it would have taken 10 years until you got your money back if you held on. But if you bought at the bottom in 2009, you’re up well over 250%.
Given it’s extremely difficult to time the market, it’s a good idea to deploy a consistent dollar cost average strategy throughout your life. In the beginning, because they make up a larger portion of your overall investment amount, contributions are extremely important.
However, over time, contributions become less important compared to investment returns. Below is a sample chart the shows the wall of worry. The biggest wall of worry was the pandemic that began in 2020. The S&P 500 corrected by 32%. But here we are, back to all-time highs.
What About Bonds?
The bond market, as represented by the Barclays Aggregate Bond Fund ETF, acts a little differently. Whereas the S&P 500 declined by roughly 50% during the last downturn, the Barclays Aggregate Bond Fund only declined about ~15%. In other words, during times of despair, bonds are much more defensive. On the flip side, since its 2009 lows, the Barclays aggregate bond index is only up about 25%.
During times of uncertainty, investors rush to the safety of bonds, pushing down interest rates. Savvy borrowers will take advantage by refinancing their debt to lower their costs. Credible is my favorite lending marketplace to get pre-qualified lenders competing for your business for free in under three months.
Given we’re near all-time highs and the stock market moves much more violently than the bond market, the logical conclusion is to shift some of our investments out of stocks and into bonds.
If we are wrong, then we simply make less than we could have. If we are right about a downturn, then we will either make more or lose less than we could have. Although many are warning we are in a bond bubble, in finance, everything is relative.
Calculate The Yields
It’s also important to observe the dividend yield for both asset classes. Consider the annual dividend yield as the income you’ll earn while waiting for things to play out.
The dividend yield of the S&P 500 at ~1.5% is higher than the dividend yield of the Barclays aggregate bond fund at ~1.3%. When this occurs, there’s a tendency for money to flow towards equities given the opportunity cost to invest in bonds is so low.
The dividend yield can also be considered a performance buffer. For example, if the S&P 500 declines by 10%, your total return is really -8% if you hold for one year (-10% + 2%). When investing in either stocks or bonds, always think about the total return = principal performance + dividends.
Inflation Is Important To Understand
To determine the best asset allocation of stocks and bonds by age, you must also get a good understanding of inflation.
Just like how inflation is a natural tailwind for real estate investors, inflation is also a natural tailwind for stock market investors. The stock market performs based off corporate earnings growth, which inflation helps.
The more corporate earnings grow, the higher the stock market if valuation multiples stay the same. The stronger the expectations for earnings growth, the higher the stock market tends to climb as well as valuations expand.
Between 1926 and today, the annualized total return for a portfolio composed exclusively of stocks in Standard & Poor’s Composite Index of 500 Stocks was ~10%. The average inflation rate for the same period was 2.93%. Therefore, the real rate of return was 10% – 2.93% = 7.07%.
Meanwhile, during the same period, the average annual return for investment-grade government bonds was 5.72% for a real rate of return of 5.72% – 2.93% = 2.79%.
Given we all want to beat inflation by as wide a margin as possible without taking undue risk, we tend to favor stocks over bonds, but hold both because we don’t know the future. Take a look below at the historical performance of stocks and bonds versus inflation.
There’s also something else worth mentioning. One of the key reasons for the widening wealth gap is because the rich invest their savings, while the not rich tend to spend.
If you combine consistent savings with compound investment growth, it’s easy to see how huge the wealth gap becomes over an extended period of time.
Inflation is why you real estate is my favorite asset class to build wealth. You want to be a beneficiary of inflation by collection higher rents and seeing higher real estate prices. I’m bullish on housing for years to come.
Why Are Stocks And Bonds Both Near Record Highs?
The S&P 500 is at or close to a record high because of high earnings rebound expectations.
The historical mean and median S&P 500 P/E multiple is around 15X. Therefore, at 33X, stocks are very expensive, but not yet as outrageously expensive as they were in 2001 and 2009.
The bond interest rates are still very low because of the Fed and the amount of liquidity in the system. The belief is that the inflation spike we’re seeing post pandemic is temporary.
When inflation is low, investors buy bonds to gain yield. But as investors bid up bond prices, the yields come down e.g. $10 dividend payment on a $100 bond = 10% dividend yield, but if the bond gets bid up to $200, the dividend yield is only 5%. Remember we are looking at snapshots in time. The markets are fluid.
Notice how the 10-year bond yield has been coming down since it reached 15.8% back in 1980. We’re at only ~1/.2% for the 10-year bond yield, which is absolutely absurd! This is one of the reasons why paying a higher mortgage rate for a 30-year fixed is a suboptimal choice. Why pay more when you can pay less with an ARM?
Unless you think coordination among global central banks will become weaker, technology will become slower, and there will be no more global upheavals like Brexit, it’s unlikely that inflation in the US will spike higher. Think about how much technology is displacing jobs. Think about how globalization is creating cheaper labor and goods.
Low inflation and low interest rates are here to stay.
As a well-rounded investor, you must look at this collapse in interest rates as an opportunity to invest in rate sensitive sectors like real estate. I think there’s a golden opportunity to buy real estate due to a rise in affordability.
Recommended Allocation Of Stocks And Bonds By Age
Given what we know about the stock and bond market, we should conclude the following:
1) If we want to beat inflation, it’s wise to invest in both the stock and bond market. Cash loses its purchasing power over time given money market returns are minuscule. But cash is also a fantastic temporary store of value during times of uncertainty.
2) Time in the market is better than timing the market. The longer we can invest, the higher the probability we will make money. Employ a disciplined dollar cost average strategy.
3) Market cycles force us to diversify between stocks and bonds. We never know for sure when we will retire, when we will need our funds, and what our future cash flow will look like.
Conventional Best Asset Allocation Model Of Stocks And Bonds
Below is my updated recommendation of stocks and bonds by age for most investors. It is the best asset allocation of stocks and bonds by age for most people in my opinion.
The formula simply takes 120 minus an investor’s age to calculate the stock allocation percentage e.g. 120 – 40 year old = 80% in stocks. I use 120 because we live longer. The “New Life Model” is the base case asset allocation for the general public.
Age Analysis For The Best Asset Allocation Of Stocks And Bonds
Age 0 – 25: You’ve got nothing to lose. Your earnings potential is high and your energy is strong. Perhaps you’re paying back student loans. Do so with vigor, but make sure you are at least contributing to your IRA or 401k up to your company’s match. If you don’t have a company match, then try and save and invest as much as possible until you feel financial pain.
Age 26 – 40: You’ve still got a lot of energy and earnings potential, but you’ve got to start thinking about others as well. Large purchases such as a house or vehicle will significantly draw down investable assets. Perhaps there’s a marriage to pay for or a partner’s debt to assume. Despite additional financial responsibilities, you’re now maxing out your 401k and investing whatever is left in real estate to get neutral inflation.
Age 41 – 60: Your prime earning years should allow you to aggressively save and invest. All those net worth target charts a younger you scorned now make a whole lot of sense due to compound returns. At the same time, there may be growing bills to pay such as private school tuition for high school and college. Burnout risk at your job is now highest.
Age 61 – unknown: Hopefully you’ve achieved financial independence. Your investment income from stocks, bonds, real estate, and alternative investments should be covering 100% of living expenses. Your main goal is principal protection rather than principal growth.
The above chart assumes that you live and work a more traditional lifecycle.
Best Asset Allocation Of Stocks And Bonds By Age – FS Model
But what if you’re a little more unorthodox than the general public? Here’s the Financial Samurai stocks and bonds asset allocation model, which is appropriate for folks who build multiple income streams and get out of the rate race sooner due to an aggressive accumulation of capital.
Age Analysis For Asset Allocation
Age 0 – 30: You’ve also got nothing to lose. This is the period where to get ahead you are working way more than the conventional 40 hours a week. Due to your strong performance at work, your pay and promotion schedule is accelerated. You’re maxing out your 401k and investing an additional 20%+ of after tax, after 401k money through a digital wealth advisor or DIY broker. Even if the stock market craters by 20%, your contributions continue to buoy your investment portfolio as you buy during bad times times.
Age 31 – 40: After firmly cementing your position as a valuable employee, you begin to use your free time to build additional income streams beyond the stock market: bonds, rental properties, crowdsourcing investments, structured notes, venture debt, venture capital, private equity.
Your goal is to diversify your net worth by making public equity investments equal to no more than 50% of your net worth because you realize the value of various asset classes. You also long to be more independent after working diligently for the past 15 – 20 years. Therefore, the only way is to really create multiple income streams.
Age 41 – 60: Not only do you lower your exposure to stocks to 60%, you also increase your exposure to dividend paying stocks with less volatility. Your main goal is to extract income from your investments instead of shooting for the next multi-bagger growth stock.
By this time, you’ve broadened your net worth into at least five different asset classes. Further, you’ve developed your side-hustle into a stand alone business where you can be your own boss, pay less taxes, and generate a powerful income stream. If you can get a guaranteed 5% annual return, you’ll take it.
Age 61 – unknown: Your main goal is to protect your assets so they can provide for your friends and family indefinitely. With a 50/50 ratio, your investments are playing both offense and defensive. You’re aiming for a 4% annual return.
You have more than enough, which means you have a greater ability to donate your time and money to others. Any wealth accumulated over the estate tax level will be aggressively given away because the government is inefficient.
Point of clarification: These asset allocation recommendations are pertinent for those who have a majority of their net worth in stocks and bonds. However, my sincere hope is that everybody diversifies their net worth so that public equities makes up no more than 50% of their net worth. Hence, if you are 40 years old and follow my 70%/30% stocks/bonds allocation, stocks and bonds actually may only make up 35%/15% of your entire net worth.
Invest Early And Often
Technology has made investing easier and cheaper. In the old days, you had to call your broker to make a trade and pay a $100+ commission for each trade. Can you imagine spending $1,000 to build a portfolio? It’s no wonder the buy and hold principle was established.
Today, you can build a portfolio by simply owning SPY (the low cost S&P 500 ETF) and AGG (the low cost Barclays Aggregate Bond ETF) in the above ratios through any online brokerage. Commissions are now free. If you have a smaller portfolio or if you really enjoy following the markets, I recommend this route.
If you aren’t really interested in following the markets and find that you can spend your time making money elsewhere more efficiently, I recommend this route. You can always just use Personal Capital’s free tools to manage your investments and net worth as well.
If you haven’t already, max out your 401k and your IRA. Keep your portfolio simple and invest in the lowest cost index ETFs possible. Follow a recommended asset allocation model as you age. Feel free to take 5% – 10% of your portfolio and swing for the fences too, especially before age 40.
If you need liquidity and can’t max out your 401k, then consider contributing at least up to the company match and investing in an after-tax account. If you keep up your investing schedule, in 10 years you’ll be surprised at how much you can accumulate.
Manage Your Money In One Place
Sign up for Personal Capital, the web’s #1 free wealth management tool to get a better handle on your finances. In addition to better money oversight, run your investments through their award-winning Investment Checkup tool. You will see exactly how much you’re paying in fees.I was paying $1,700 a year in fees I had no idea I was paying.
After you link all your accounts, use their Retirement Planning calculator. It pulls your real data to give you as pure an estimation of your financial future as possible. Definitely run your numbers to see how you’re doing.
I’ve been using Personal Capital since 2012. As a result, I have seen my net worth skyrocket during this time thanks to better money management.
Invest In Real Estate
In addition to investing in stocks and bonds, I strongly encourage you to invest in real estate. Consider real estate as a bonds+ type of investment. Real estate is less volatile, generates income, and provides utility.
If you’re interested in a hands off approach to real estate investing, consider investing in a publicly traded REIT or in real estate crowdfunding. Once I had my son in 2017, I decided to sell my PITA rental house and reinvest $550,000 of the proceeds into real estate crowdfunding. My favorite two real estate crowdfunding platforms are:
Fundrise: A way for accredited and non-accredited investors to diversify into real estate through private eREITs. Fundrise has been around since 2012 and has consistently generated steady returns, no matter what the stock market is doing. Investing in a real estate fund is the easiest way to gain exposure.
CrowdStreet: A way for accredited investors to invest in individual real estate opportunities mostly in 18-hour cities. 18-hour cities are secondary cities with lower valuations, higher rental yields, and potentially higher growth due to job growth and demographic trends. You can build your own select real estate fund with CrowdStreet.
Both platforms are free to sign up and explore. I’ve personally invested $810,000 in real estate crowdfunding to diversify and capitalize on the heartland of America. The spreading out of America is real thanks to technology.
he Best Asset Allocation Of Stocks And Bonds By Age is a Financial Samurai original post. I’ve been helping people reach financial freedom since starting this site in 2009.
For older folk (>55 in my definition), I’m not sure the inflation boogieman can be so easily written off. Bond ETFs seem to be all the rage for that slice of a portfolio. What I don’t see is using I-bonds as an autopilot tool for unforeseen inflation issues. As their rates automatically adjust biannually to inflation — even with their $10k/yr purchase cap — wouldn’t this be a worthwhile fraction of the ‘bond’ portion of a portfolio?
The year 2020 has shown us that events that are outside your control like the global pandemic can shatter all predictions and forecasts to pieces. In March-2020 when the stock market reached record low levels, no one expected the year to end with a 67% improvement in S&P 500 index.
That logscale chart really understates the difference between stocks and inflation, they’re like 10x (bonds, although ’82 was scary) and 100x (S&P) returns for what looks like a line.
Even if inflation cuts into your yearly percentage, the key is that anything being over that consistently still compounds exponentially.
Hi Sam, I have been reading your blog and enjoy learning your perspective. Thanks for the excellent content!
I am in my 30’s and track just under your “Avg net worth of the above avg person”.
I have started to increase my bond% in my portfolio and have a few questions:
1. How do you suggest someone to invest in bonds? I invest in bond funds VBLTX and VWEHX for the higher long term yields. Your thoughts?
2. I don’t think I’ve read what you do with dividends. Do you reinvest, if so how? I use the dividends from the bond funds and use them to automatically invest in the s&p 500 fund, so I am working to increase the amount I put in the bond funds for “safety” and using the yields to buy the stock fund. Your thoughts?
Thanks again for the excellent content!
Nice article, always appreciate your articles with this level of specifics. I’m especially looking forward to the upcoming post you mentioned on RE acting as bonds – I’ve had that thought and bc we are so heavy in RE (75%) don’t have any bond exposure. Anticipating you’ll have some great food for thought to consider.
I think a super important point that you mention, but only briefly at the end of the article is that the true exposure to public equities and bonds should be lower than what your total net worth / income streams are. Hard physical assets, land, rentals, private company ownership, etc. are where the real wealth is usually created. Public equities are a parking place that is equally important to for a balanced net worth allocation.
Here is my real question/comment though: I hate Bond Funds. Admittedly I do have some in my portfolio along with owning the actual bonds. My question is for individuals that have achieved FIRE with a significant net worth, why would you buy a bond fund vs. creating a portfolio of the actual bonds themselves that you would hold to maturity? If interest rates rise bond funds get slammed and you’ll be a loser (it has happened to me before, ouch)…but if you hold the bond nothing (other than the scenario of a default) happens & your principle is returned. A high quality muni-bond portfolio can yield close to 4% tax free, with inflation essentially not existent and equities at an all time high I’m curious if there is a flaw in my logic? All bond durations 4 years or less and held to maturity.
“Age 41 – 60: Not only do you lower your exposure to stocks to 60%, you also increase your exposure to dividend paying stocks with less volatility.”
Ben Graham proposed that the average investor should have at least 25% in Bonds (max 75% in Bonds) – I found and find bonds are not atractive, at least to me.
I think the average Investor (when he is not to risk averse) could replace bonds with an dividend-searching-ETF.
Finance Solver says
Love your guide for the 0-25 year olds. We have nothing to lose with endless energy so time to put in 40+ hours to prove ourselves and increase our earnings potential! I am following this guide correctly and have 100% invested in equities :)
Hoping nothing else breaks down the stock market.. let the bull market rage on!